Informed decisions on whether and how to (re)use particular digital datasets rely on knowledge about aspects of data and metadata quality, including their completeness, accuracy, provenance and timeliness (Digital Science et al. 2019; Peng et al. 2021a). Quality assessments also improve the reliability and usability of both data and metadata (Callahan et al. 2017) and are crucial for supporting open-source science and data-driven policy-making processes (Peng et al. 2020a; 2021a).
A dataset in this article refers to a collection of data that is identifiable (ISO 19115-1 2014), and has the potential to be curated or published by a single actor (W3C 2020). A particular dataset can digitally represent a group of observations, a data product from a specific version of a processing algorithm based on observations, output of numerical model(s), or outcomes of laboratory experiments.
Dataset quality information embodies information about the quality or state of data (input, output, and ancillary), metadata, documentation, software, procedures, processes, workflows, and infrastructure that were created or utilized during the entire lifecycle of a dataset (Peng et al. 2021a). Therefore, the focus of this article is on dataset quality – not just data quality.
To be effectively shared and utilized, quality information needs to be consistently curated, preferably traceable, and appropriately documented (Peng et al. 2021a). The granularity of this quality documentation may vary – sometimes be very fine (e.g., per-observation in the case of volunteered observations) but the critical common resolution required to support FAIR data publishing is the individual dataset level.1 Quality assessment results also need to be represented consistently, updated regularly, and should be integrable across systems, services, and tools to enable improved data sharing (Henzen et al. 2021; Wagner et al. 2021; Peng et al. 2021a).
While the needs for assessments about the quality of data and related information for a particular dataset are well recognized, an approach for a framework to evaluate and present such quality information to data users (e.g., Figgemeier et al. 2021) may not have been sufficiently developed and/or sufficiently addressed for disciplinary or interdisciplinary use. In response, an international workshop was held virtually on 13 July 2020 to pursue the needs and challenges for preparing and documenting dataset quality information consistently during the complete dataset lifecycle by a group of global Earth science, interdisciplinary domain experts. A number of challenges were identified in Peng et al. (2020b), and three are highlighted below.
First, the selection of relevant quality attribute(s) (e.g., accuracy, completeness, relevancy, timeliness, etc.) is largely dependent upon context and can yield multiple quality categories and practical dimensions (Lee et al. 2002; Ramapriyan et al. 2017; Redman 1996; Wang & Strong 1996). This multi-dimensionality makes the assessment of dataset quality a complex endeavor. For example, the quality attribute of completeness can refer to the completeness of data values in both spatial and temporal spaces, or the completeness of metadata elements or content. The multi-dimensionality of dataset quality has been discussed in detail by Peng et al. (2021a).
An example of grouping dataset quality into four aspects (i.e., science, product, stewardship, and service) through the entire dataset lifecycle is shown in Figure 1. For each aspect, three important stages are listed along with selected quality attributes which do not constitute an exhaustive list. Those dataset lifecycle stages do not necessarily cover all activities. They may not necessarily happen sequentially, and also may occur in more than one quality aspect. For example, the ‘Evaluate’ part of the lifecycle in the ‘Product’ quadrant may overlap with the ‘Science’ by influencing the ‘Validate’ part. However, generally speaking, activities in the dataset lifecycle identified in the ‘Science’ quadrant occur before those in the ‘Product’ quadrant as noted by the direction of the arrows in Figure 1. Note that the term ‘Develop’ used in the ‘Science’ quadrant also includes data observation/acquisition. The feedback and improvement cycle can occur in any one of the stages.
Second, quality attributes are often not defined, measured, or captured consistently, even within one discipline. Moroni and colleagues recently observed such complexity as it pertains to the uncertainty of Earth science data (Moroni et al. 2019). Consistency in defining quality attributes and converging to standardized assessment models may be optimal for sharing, but more progress needs to be made, and whether such consistency is achievable remains to be seen. A step towards cross-domain interoperability, however, may be achieved by thorough documentation of domain-specific quality assessment techniques and metrics and the full provenance of the quality assessment. This allows transformations to be applied to dataset quality scores when this is possible and appropriate, e.g., computation of an exceedance value or quantile from a mean and standard deviation (Bastin et al. 2013, Section 5.1).
The third challenge is associated with the paradigm shift in the capabilities of the designated community of scientific data: from domain literate with familiarity of the scientific context and intended use of data products, to potential users representing diverse fields of inquiry (Baker et al. 2016), with increasing demand for machine interoperability. Therefore, the existence of a wide range of stakeholders and data users, including those with very little or no science background, should be considered to facilitate the analysis, interpretation, understanding of research data and related information and in some cases acted upon (Peng et al. 2021a).
Any effort to maximize the sharing of quality information requires collaboration among members of the entire community across science, data management, and technology domains. Recognizing that, 32 workshop participants – all international domain experts – issued an open ‘call-to-action for global access to and harmonization of quality information of individual Earth science datasets’ (Peng et al. 2021a). In response to that action call and further motivated by the needs of and interest from the global Earth science community, the International FAIR Dataset Quality Information (FAIR-DQI) Community Guidelines Working Group was formed.
Working group members comprise international domain experts, such as data producers and contributors, data managers and curators from scientific institutes and data centers, and data consumers and publishers. Given their common interest in dataset quality information, this group of people can be regarded as a ‘Community of Practice (CoP)’ (E. Wenger-Trayner & B. Wenger-Trayner 2015). Together, the members of this group possess valuable first-hand knowledge and expertise in dealing with the challenges of developing, managing, disseminating, and using a variety of Earth science data products and services, such as data products obtained from surface, airborne, and satellite observations as well as output from numerical models.
Since September 2020, the members of this working group have been working collaboratively to develop practical guidelines for data managers and repositories to follow when preparing, representing, and reporting on the quality of individual datasets. These guidelines build on the success of the FAIR Guiding Principles for data sharing (Wilkinson et al. 2016) and on the extensive expert knowledge and practical experiences of working group members, while leveraging community practices. This article describes the development principles and processes, captures the outcomes of this international community effort, and presents a path forward toward enhancing the coverage of disciplines beyond Earth sciences.
This article is organized as follows. A background has been provided in this section. The principles, scope, goals, and intended audience for the development of the guidelines are provided in Section 2, while the development process is described in Section 3. The guidelines developed are presented in Section 4, with a workflow for initiating and carrying out quality assessment, as well as a description of crosswalks to elements of the FAIR Principles. Potential impact of the guidelines, benefits of CoP, and path forward are discussed in Section 5, with a conclusion in Section 6.
The following principles are utilized to guide the development of the guidelines, based on feedback from the Earth science community:
Given the complexity of dataset quality attributes and different contexts of their fitness for use, the guidelines will focus on providing guidance for capturing and representing dataset quality information consistently, adapting the FAIR Guiding Principles. Preparing such guidance will foster data use by providing users with consistent, timely, and accessible information that is available to effectively make educated data (re)use decisions for their unique application requirements. The guidelines do not focus on what quality attributes, aspects, or dimensions to assess; what assessment models to use; or how to assess dataset quality. However, a basic workflow has been developed, and practical examples are provided as references to help organizations and data stewards get started.
A dataset lifecycle in the context of this article starts at the planning and designing stage of developing a data product (Figure 1).2 It will not touch on sensor algorithms or model development and deployment. However, it is also important to capture and describe quality information such as algorithm model parameters (e.g., accuracy, precision, uncertainty) during these development and deployment stages, because the quality information from these stages is critical for identifying error sources; estimating data product uncertainty (Moroni et al. 2019); and examining error progression to downstream applications (e.g., Matthews et al. 2013).
This international community effort has been undertaken to develop guidelines for the Earth science community, in collaboration with international domain experts on data and information quality. The primary objective of the guidelines has been to offer the Earth science community actionable recommendations that can be adopted by a variety of stakeholders to consistently capture, represent, and integrate dataset quality information. Treating dataset quality information as a digital object and being consistent with the FAIR Guiding Principles, improves its potential for sharing and reuse with more targeted practicality. Care was taken so that the guidelines would be general enough to be readily adopted or adapted by other research science communities. The optimal goal is to foster global access to and harmonization of quality information of datasets as a critical step towards facilitating open-source science in both machine- and human-friendly environments as called for by Peng et al. (2021a).
All data stakeholders may benefit from the community guidelines:
This section provides a detailed description of the process of developing a framework through an international collaboration with the expectation that it will be useful for other groups or communities that may be considering similar endeavors.
The idea of potentially developing a framework for consistently capturing quality information for enabling the use of Earth science datasets was initiated in September 2019 (Figure 2). Follow-on discussions on community needs and the prospect of developing community guidelines for documenting and reporting dataset quality information as described in Peng et al. (2020b), were carried out among several groups across the globe. These groups include the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Information Quality Cluster (IQC), the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) Evaluation and Quality Control (EQC) team, and the Australia/New Zealand Data Quality Interest Group (AU/NZ DQIG).
ESIP, which was founded in 1998, is primarily supported by United States Earth science governmental agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). ESIP members include over 150 national and international partner organizations. The ESIP IQC fosters cross-disciplinary collaborations to evaluate various facets of Earth science data and information quality and produces recommended practices for the community. The BSC EQC team supports the EQC function of Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store, one of six services of the European Union’s Earth observation programme. The AU/NZ DQIG is a forum for AU/NZ data providers, repository operators and data consumers and it is facilitated by the Australian Research Data Commons (ARDC). The AU/NZ DQIG was founded in late 2019 by ARDC, Curtin University and the Australian National University (ANU).
Support from the ESIP leadership was committed in early 2020 to sponsor a whole-day, in-person, international workshop prior to the ESIP 2020 summer meeting (SM20) with an additional report-out session during the SM20. The goal of the pre-ESIP workshop was to convene international domain experts to kick off the development of the guidelines by exploring the needs, challenges and current state of documenting and reporting dataset quality information. Invitations for participation were sent to prospective collaborators.
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the in-person workshop was changed to a virtual event, allowing it to be extended to a wider audience. A case statement was drafted and published to help set the stage and communicate the effort (Peng et al. 2020a). The workshop website3 was established to host the workshop materials and additional resources (Figure 3).
About 80 ESIP and invited international domain experts, affiliated with over 40 private, academic and governmental institutions from nine countries within North America, Oceania, and Europe registered for the workshop (Peng et al. 2020b). Two live 90-minute virtual workshop sessions were held on July 13, 2020, to accommodate attendees from different time zones. More than 45 workshop registrants attended the first live session while approximately 25 attended the second. About 45 ESIP SM20 registrants attended the subsequent report-out session. Prior to this workshop, a mini-workshop had been held by AU/NZ DQIG on July 6, 2020, where 57 had registered and 27 participated actively.
Eleven invited speakers presented during the two virtually live workshop sessions and additional three presented at the 90-minute report-out session during SM20. Invited speakers represented diverse international organizations, including major international space agencies and satellite programs, such as the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program (Goldberg & Zhou 2020), European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) (Schulz 2020), and European Space Agency (ESA) (Albani & Maggio 2020). Presentations described data stewardship activities at global organizations, such as the Group on Earth Observations (Downs 2020) and the World Meteorological Organization (Lief et al. 2020); as well as major national Earth science data and service centers, including those for NASA (Wei et al. 2020), NOAA (Ritchey 2020), USGS (Hou 2020) and Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) (Drévillon et al. 2020). (See Table 1 of Peng et al. 2020b, for the full list of presentation titles, affiliated organizations, and citations).
The speakers shared their knowledge to help participants ascertain the complexity and multi-dimensionality of curating dataset quality information. This knowledge exchange allowed participants to understand why Earth science organizations need to prepare and describe data quality information throughout the entire dataset lifecycle – covering stages from data product design and production, through data and metadata curation for preservation and access, to data use by servicing data to consumers. It also helped attendees appreciate the challenges those organizations face and learn about the different approaches taken. These informative presentations provided perspective for productive discussions among participants during the live sessions. Notes were recorded online in a collaborative Google Doc and offline discussions continued following the workshop during the two weeks of the virtual SM20. For many of the over twenty non-US pre-ESIP workshop attendees, this was their first time engaging with the ESIP community (Peng et al. 2020b).
The strong need for practical guidelines was recognized as an opportunity to provide the community with guidance to improve data sharing by consistently preparing and representing information about the quality of datasets. The absence and limitations of currently available guidance also was recognized (Peng et al. 2021a). Participants of both the pre-ESIP workshop and the subsequent SM20 session have stressed the need for such guidelines to be created by the community and for the community through an iterative process with community feedback (Peng et al. 2020b).
Several community calls to participate voluntarily in an international working group were announced during the pre-ESIP workshop and the subsequent SM20 session, along with messages to relevant Earth science email lists, including the ESIP community list. Since September 2020, over twenty international domain experts have joined the working group, which has begun developing the guidelines by consolidating community recommendations first (Figures 2 and 3). A white paper on the guidelines was published for community review in April 2021 (Peng et al. 2021b, version 3). Extensive outreach was conducted by working group members to share the initial draft of the guidelines document with the Earth science and geospatial data community (e.g., Downs et al. 2021; Lacagnina et al. 2021a–b; Peng et al. 2020c; Peng et al. 2021c, d, e, f, g, h, i; Wyborn et al. 2021). The guidelines document, partially reproduced below, has since been revised to release the first baseline version, which reflects community comments and suggestions (Peng et al. 2021b).
In this section, we first define a basic workflow with relevant elements to consider when setting out to assess dataset quality and curate quality information. A set of the guidelines developed by the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working group are then presented, followed by crosswalks between the guidelines to the FAIR Guiding Principles.
While assessing dataset quality is multi-dimensional (Peng et al. 2021a), there are common aspects. Knowledge about these common aspects may help to set the direction for the right approach in each specific case of assessing quality and reporting assessment results.
To help organizations and data stewards address the challenge of where to start when curating and reporting dataset quality information, we have developed a typical workflow (Figure 4). This approach is inspired by the quality evaluation procedures defined in ISO 19157 (2013) and Six Sigma (e.g., Cordy & Coryea 2006), and follows the steps outlined below to define, measure, analyze, and improve, as presented in Lee et al. (2002) for organizing data quality management.
The workflow highlights some of the basic ingredients and elements to be considered at each step when curating dataset quality information. We add the dissemination, a.k.a. ‘reporting’ in ISO 19157 (2013), of dataset quality information, which is becoming an increasingly important task for building trust between data providers and end-users and for improving data usability.4
As shown in Figure 4, the following two steps are needed prior to carrying out any assessment activity.
The next two steps are important to capture and convey the resultant quality information.
Finally, feedback from users on dataset quality information should be sought and evaluated to improve the quality information provided along with how the information is disseminated.
The following five guidelines are developed by the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working Group to enable curated dataset quality information to be FAIR (i.e., findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable), for both human users and machines. A description of crosswalks to relevant elements of the FAIR Principles, which are denoted as F1-F4 for Findable, A1-A2 for Accessible, I1-I3 for Interoperable, and R1 for Reusable, is provided (see Wilkinson et al. 2016 for the definitions of the FAIR Principles).
The current state of dataset compliance with these guidelines varies. Most, if not all, datasets do not yet fully satisfy these guidelines. While it is difficult to find examples of datasets that comply with all the guidelines, it is still useful to provide examples that illustrate how each individual guideline is being met. This is the approach followed below. Additional examples can be found in Peng et al. (2021b).
Guideline 1: Describe dataset (title, persistent identifier [PID] with a comprehensive landing page, e.g., digital object identifier [DOI], product uniform resource identifier [URI], version, data producer, publication/update date, publisher, date accessed, usage license, e.g., CC-BY 4.0 or CC0).
This guideline aims to ensure that the underlying dataset is findable, comprehensively described, and potentially reusable by cross-walking to all the F1-F4 principles of Findability, and the R1 (rich metadata with a plurality of relevant attributes) and R1.1 principles (data usage license) of Reusability, either directly or indirectly, denoted by solid and dashed lines in Figure 5, respectively.
Specifically, having a dataset PID leads to satisfying F1 (data are assigned a unique and persistent identifier). Given the nature of PID and the required landing page ensures that the (meta)data are indexed and resolvable (F4). To have a comprehensive landing page of a dataset, both data and metadata need to be described with numerous pertinent attributes, which leads to satisfy F2 (data are described with rich metadata) and R1 principles, respectively. Including a usage license leads to supporting the R1.1 principle.
The current common practice is to include the data PID in the metadata (F3) as part of the process of assigning and minting that PID. If the data PID is minted by a service provider such as DataCite, metadata should continue to be accessible even beyond the availability of the data (A2). However, since it is largely up to practices implemented by individual organizations, it yields only an indirect crosswalk from the guideline 1 to these two FAIR principles (F3, A2).
There are many examples of published datasets that meet this guideline by following community data citation standards. Two of them are shown below:
Neumann, D, Matthias, V, Bieser, J and Aulinger, A (2017). Concentrations of gaseous pollutants and particulate compounds over northwestern Europe and nitrogen deposition into the north and Baltic Sea in 2008. World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ. License: CC BY 4.0. Created: 2017–06–08. https://doi.org/10.1594/WDCC/CMAQ_CCLM_HZG_2008.
Maggi, F, Tang, F H M, la Cecilia, D and McBratney, A (2020). Global Pesticide Grids (PEST-CHEMGRIDS), Version 1.01. Created: September 2020. License: CC-BY 4.0 International. Palisades, NY: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). https://doi.org/10.7927/weq9-pv30
Guideline 2: Utilize a one- (or more) dimensional, structured quality assessment metric that is:
This guideline aims to ensure that the assessment model is searchable and retrievable (Figure 5). Requirement 2.1 leads to satisfying F1 (assignment of PID), while Requirements 2.2 and 2.3 ensure that F4 and A1 (registered (meta)data and their retrievability) are satisfied, respectively. The authentication and authorization requirements in 2.2 meet A1.2. The requirements for protocol in 2.3 lead to satisfying A1.2. The versioning itself is far short of the information required for assessment of model provenance. However, it helps support provenance (R1.2). Therefore, an indirect crosswalk to R1.2 is indicated in Figure 5.
Examples of existing dataset quality assessment models and their compliance with Guideline 2 are provided in Table 1. Additional assessment model examples can be found in Peng et al. (2021b).
|ASSESSMENT MODEL||SCIENTIFIC DATA STEWARDSHIP MATURITY MATRIX (PENG ET AL. 2015)||STEWARDSHIP MATURITY MATRIX FOR CLIMATE DATA (PENG ET AL. 2019b)||FAIR DATA MATURITY MODEL (RDA FAIR DATA MATURITY MODEL WORKING GROUP 2020)||METADATA QUALITY FRAMEWORK (BUGBEE ET AL. 2021)||DATA QUALITY ANALYSES AND QUALITY CONTROL FRAMEWORK (WOO & GOURCUFF 2021)|
|Quality Entity (i.e., attribute, aspect, or dimension)||Stewardship||Stewardship||FAIRness||Metadata||Data|
|2.1 – Publicly Available||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|2.1 – PID||DOI||DOI||DOI||DOI||DOI|
|2.2 – Indexed||Data Science Journal||Figshare||Zenodo||Data Science Journal||Integrated Marine Observing System Catalog|
2.3 – Retrievable
Using Free, Open, Standard-Based Protocol
If no suitable assessment model is available, one may need to develop a new one. In this case, above requirements 2.1–2.3 should be satisfied to make the assessment model findable and accessible. Individual researchers can also use the Registry of Research data Repositories (re3Data) at https://doi.org/10.17616/R3D to search for appropriate repositories based on their own requirements. A CoreTrustSeal certified repository demonstrates more matured organizational processes and capabilities in managing its holdings of digital objects (CoreTrust Seal 2019).
Minimally, a published paper (with DOI) that describes a quality assessment model is necessary to provide access to the model. We highly recommend publishing the assessment model itself (with DOI), for example, in one of the aforementioned repositories. A project website tends to be a common place currently, but is often not sustainable or persistent due to the limited lifespan of projects. For example, a broken link as a result of organizational system migration will lead to inaccessibility of the assessment model.
Guideline 3: Capture the quality attribute(s)/aspect(s)/dimension(s), assessment method and results in a dataset-level metadata record using a consistent framework/schema that:
This guideline aims to ensure that the quality information is captured or referenced in the dataset metadata and that it is findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable by machine end-users (Figure 5).
Utilizing a metadata framework/schema that satisfies the conditions 2.1–2.3 of Guideline 2 ensures that it is findable and accessible.
The requirements of capturing quality entity (i.e., attribute, aspect, or dimension), assessment method and results and that in 3.1 help ensure that the dataset-level metadata is richly described (R1) following metadata standards (R1.3) and is machine interoperable (I1). Capturing the assessment method is often accomplished by referencing it in the metadata record, which satisfies I3; as is capturing assessment results in the form of a published report.
Specifically, including a description of the information related to assessments, that is, quality entity, method, and results as required in 3.2–3.5, leads to rich metadata with a plurality of relevant attributes (R1). The semantically and structurally consistent metadata record that is compliant with standards (3.1) and crosswalks to I1 and R1.3. It may also potentially meet the requirements of I2 (FAIR-compliant vocabularies) in a best-case scenario but may fall short in most of the cases, so only a weak mapping is denoted by the dashed line (Figure 5). The requirements in 3.5 support the provenance of the assessment results (R1.2).
Examples of existing approaches in representing quality entities, assessment models and assessment results in machine-readable quality metadata and their compliance with Guideline 2 are provided in Table 2. Additional examples can be found in Peng et al. (2021b).
|QUALITY METADATA FRAMEWORK||NOAA ONESTOP DSMM QUALITY METADATA (PENG ET AL. 2019A)||ATMODAT MATURITY INDICATOR (HEYDEBRECK ET AL. 2020)||METADATAFROMGEODATA (WAGNER ET AL. 2021)|
|Quality Entity||Stewardship||Any Quality Entity||Data and Metadata|
|3.1 – Semantically and Structurally Consistent||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|3.1 – Metadata Framework/Schema||International||Domain||Domain|
|3.2 – Quality Entity Description||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|3.3 – Assessment Method/Structure Description||Yes||Yes||Partly (contains evaluation of quality description and not description of quality assessment)|
|3.4 – Assessment Results Description||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|3.5 – Versioning and the History of the Assessments||Yes||Versioning||Creation & Last Update Dates|
Adopting or adapting (including information about the adaptation) existing quality metadata frameworks also is recommended. If that is not possible, a new quality metadata framework or schema may be developed. In this case, the framework should have the capability to allow for requirements in 3.1–3.5 to be satisfied.
Using a consistent metadata tag and including it in a schema is recommended, if applicable. For example, Peng et al. (2019a) uses MM-Stew as a metadata tag to denote stewardship maturity assessment. Once the new schema is stable, registering it with schema.org or other relevant metadata schema host entities, such as DataCite, is recommended.
Guideline 4: Describe comprehensively the assessment method, workflow, and results in at least a human-readable quality report that:
This guideline aims to at least ensure the quality information is findable, accessible, citable, reusable and understandable to human end-users (Figure 5). However, we strongly encourage quality reports to be also machine readable.
Comprehensively describing the relevant information yields human-readable metadata with multiple attributes (R1: richly described metadata). Publishing the assessment report following the criteria 2.1–2.3 with an explicit open license (4.2) leads to F1 (PID), F4 ((meta)data registered in a searchable resource), A1 ((meta)data retrievable via standardized protocol), and R1.1 (clear data usage license). The inclusion of the report history (4.2) supports R1.2. Linking the report PID to the dataset-level metadata record (4.3) satisfies the F3 (PID in metadata) and I3 (references to other metadata) principles, respectively.
Examples of existing approaches in representing quality entities, assessment models, and assessment results in human-readable quality reports and their compliance with Guideline 4 are provided in Table 3. Additional examples can be found in Peng et al. (2021b).
|QUALITY REPORT||LEMIEUX ET AL. (2017)||HÖCK ET AL. (2020)||COWLEY (2021)|
|4.1 – Follow Template||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4 – Quality Entity Description||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4 – Assessment Method Description||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4 – Assessment Results Description||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4.2 – License||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4.2 – Assessment History||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4.3 – Linked Report PID||Yes||No||Yes|
Guideline 5: Report/disseminate the dataset quality information in an organized way via a web interface with a comprehensive description of:
This guideline aims to ensure that the quality information is online and comprehensively described, findable, and easily understood and trusted by providing the assessment provenance (Figure 5).
A comprehensive description of the dataset (requirement 5.1), the assessed quality attribute/aspect (5.2), the evaluation method (5.3), and how to understand and use the quality information (5.4) leads to rich metadata with a plurality of relevant attributes (F2 and R1). The nature of reporting or disseminating and being online indicates it is retrievable via a standardized communication protocol (A1).
Examples of existing approaches in representing assessment results online and their compliance with Guideline 5 are provided in Table 4. Additional examples can be found in Peng et al. (2021b).
|ONLINE PORTAL||JPSS DATA PRODUCT ALGORITHM MATURITY PORTAL6||C3S CLIMATE DATA STORE DATASET QUALITY ASSESSMENT PORTAL7||ROLLINGDECK TO REPOSITORY (R2R) QA DASHBOARD8|
|Quality Entity||Algorithm||Technical and Scientific Quality||Sensor|
|5 – Report information in an organized way||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|5.1 – Dataset Description||Minimal||Yes||Minimal|
|5.2 – Assessed Quality Entity Description||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|5.3 – Evaluation Method and Review Process Description||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|5.4 – Description of How to Understand and Use Description||Some||Some||Minimal|
There is a large diversity in current approaches to disseminate data and metadata quality information because of the dependency on the knowledge-base of the designated community for data. Data users should provide feedback on which disseminated quality information is most relevant and how it can be improved. Therefore, user engagement activities are quite relevant at this stage, including prompt responses to questions and suggestions received from users.
Likewise, it is also recommended to convey dataset quality information in a manner that is easily understood and usable by data users and provide a mechanism for user feedback.
This section provides a brief discussion of the potential impact of the guidelines provided above, benefits of CoP, and the path forward to increasing community awareness of the guidelines and promoting their adoption.
Improving practices for documenting, sharing, and reusing information about the quality of datasets will help advance scientific progress and contribute to societal benefits through open-source science. When dataset quality information enables potential users to discover a dataset and determine whether it is appropriate for an intended use, FAIR data quality information also helps to achieve FAIR data (Peng et al. 2021a). Likewise, when information describing the quality of a dataset fosters its interoperability and reusability, the guidelines further help to make the data FAIR. Those elements of the guidelines which focus on documentation of quality assessment strategies have the additional potential to make FAIR not just the data, but also those evaluation processes. This articulation and communication of domain-specific models, protocols and assumptions can support robust interdisciplinary re-use of data.
In addition, adoption of the guidelines for dataset quality information by the Earth science community, as well as by other disciplinary communities, offers an opportunity to improve the trust that potential users have in the underlying datasets. From a user’s perspective, finding relevant, trusted data is critical to driving decisions. By improving practices for documenting, sharing, and reusing information about the quality of datasets, data providers and users will have increased confidence and improve consistency when disparate datasets are accessed, overlayed, and shared to drive impact-based decisions. These guidelines can assist in establishing trusted approaches for enabling diverse in-situ observing platforms to be used with confidence when assessing, for example, water quality information in estuaries, rivers, bays, and oceans when those sensors may have been installed and funded by different state and federal agencies.
Furthermore, providing sufficient information, including quality information, for using datasets within data collections has the potential to improve trust in the data repositories that are responsible for curating and sharing data (Lin et al. 2020). Clearly, community guidelines for dataset quality information would also benefit disciplines beyond the Earth sciences and efforts are underway to increase their discipline diversity.
With common interests and passions about sharing quality information, the members of the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working Group have come together to essentially form a loosely organized CoP. The development of the guidelines benefited from the common advantages of a CoP. These include knowledge sharing on needs, challenges, and practices in curating and representing quality information from diverse Earth science domains. There are also added benefits of participating in a CoP throughout the development process. Two will be highlighted below.
One is that we are all learning together. Knowledge about other perspectives broadens our own point of view that comes from our own experiences. A large part of developing knowledge is developing consensus through learning from each other.
Another is that we bring what we have learned back to our jobs, organizations, and communities. Changing is a long process of learning, accepting, and adapting – the first and hardest part is culture change. The subtle changes we make through knowledge we learned can become the seeds that lead to much-needed culture change in our organizations and communities towards sharing quality information at large.
The guidelines should help organizations and data stewards get started on providing dataset quality information to data consumers – an important step to close the chasm between data producers and users. However, adoption often requires culture change, which demands continued engagement with the Earth science community (e.g., Lacagnina et al. 2021a).
The effective sharing and (re)use of dataset quality information needs cross-disciplinary integration. Efforts are underway to engage and collaborate with other communities and disciplines beyond Earth science, such as:
It has been pointed out by the community during our on-going engagement that it will be beneficial to develop and provide use cases for data quality and implementation of the guidelines. The OGC Data Quality Domain Working Group (OGC DQ DWG)9 is currently working towards the development of a catalog of data quality use cases and we will be contributing to the effort.
The FAIR Guiding Principles described by Wilkinson et al. (2016) provide a succinct and measurable set of concepts to be used as a guideline for improving the access and reusability of data for human users and machines. Although the FAIR Principles have provided an effective way to enable data sharing, they do not explicitly describe how dataset quality information should be curated and shared.
Inspired by the FAIR Guiding Principles, a set of guidelines for curating and reporting dataset quality information were developed for both human users and machines, as a global community effort. The guidelines development effort was carried out by a Community of Practice through an iterative process guided by community feedback. The process of developing the guidelines has been described, which may be of use to inspire similar activities requiring large community consensus and uptake.
The guidelines aim to improve the availability and usability of quality information at the individual digital dataset level. Utilizing a structured quality assessment model helps to ensure the consistency of evaluation methods and results, which in turn will make it easier to capture them consistently. Capturing the assessment results in the dataset-level metadata using a consistent framework improves machine interoperability and supports integration across systems and tools. Disseminating the dataset quality information in a transparent and user-friendly way will help end users to understand and effectively use or integrate the information.
Community guidelines developed as a result of this effort bring the Earth science community one step closer to standardizing the curation and representation of dataset quality information. The guidelines described in this article offer opportunities to enable or improve the transparency and interoperability of dataset quality information. Adopting all or part of the guidelines can contribute to the ecosystem that supports open-source science. An excellent byproduct of streamlining the curation and representation of dataset quality information is the improved likelihood of automating the curation and reporting process, leading to international access to and usability of information about the quality of individual digital datasets (Peng et al. 2021a).
Utilizing the guidelines also helps improve the overall FAIRness of a dataset by providing community-standard-based rich metadata with a plurality of relevant quality attributes and qualified references. It establishes the trustworthiness of data and ultimately improves the maturity of a dataset in multiple quality dimensions or aspects including product, stewardship, and services by improving the completeness and usability of metadata and documentation.
The international FAIR-DQI community guidelines document (Peng et al. 2021b) is a living document and is expected to evolve over time to accommodate user feedback and emerging community best practices. As indicated in Section 5c, use cases will be developed, in collaboration with OGC DQ DWG, to further improve the maturity and comprehensiveness of the guidelines and provide implementation examples for the global Earth science and geospatial community. Furthermore, in collaboration with the RDA community, an effort is underway to improve the discipline diversity of the guidelines.
2It is possible that planning of data products starts long before data are collected, as for satellite missions.
4https://is.enes.org/ (the Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) programme).
5FAIR Principles, meaning of each element and examples: https://www.go-fair.org/fair-principles/.
The development and baseline of the community FAIR-DQI guidelines document would not have been possible without the voluntary and dedicated effort of the domain experts of the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working Group. We would like to thank all members of the working group for their interest, participation, and contribution.
The members of the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working Group are:
Ge Peng, Carlo Lacagnina, Ivana Ivánová, Robert R. Downs, Hampapuram K. Ramapriyan, Anette Ganske, Dave Jones, Lucy Bastin, Lesley Wyborn, Irina Bastrakova, Mingfang Wu, Chung-Lin Shie, David Moroni, Gilles Larnicol, Yaxing Wei, Nancy Ritchey, Sarah Champion, C. Sophie Hou, Ted Habermann, Gary Berg-Cross, Kaylin Bugbee, and Jeanné le Roux.
Kaylin Bugbee reviewed the manuscript with beneficial comments that have improved the clarity of the manuscript. Constructive comments from two DSJ anonymous reviewers have improved the clarity and readability of the paper.
We thank ESIP for sponsoring the virtual pre-ESIP workshop held on July 13, 2020, and for providing infrastructure support for the workshop and maintaining the FAIR-DQI website. We acknowledge the pre-ESIP workshop organizing committee members: G. Peng, C. Lacagnina, R. R. Downs, I. Ivánová, D. F. Moroni, H. K. Ramapriyan, Y. Wei, and G. Larnicol. The Australian participants acknowledge the support of the ARDC.
We thank all participants in community discussions during the development of the guidelines document, especially the following people who have provided beneficial information and/or comments: Mitch Goldberg, Jörg Schulz, Mirko Albani, Christina Lief, Shelley Stall, Lihang Zhou, Iolanda Maggio, Marie Drévillon, Brian Westra, Siri Jodha Khalsa, Miles Nicholls, Erin Kenna, Kerstin Lehnert, Paul Lemieux, Donald Collins, Gastil Gastil-Buhl, Danie Kinkade, Chantel Ridsdale, Shawn Smith, Shannon Leslie, Rebecca Hudak, Tyler Christensen, Venice Bayrd, David Green, Karen Moe, and Boyi Shangguan.
We thank all the guidelines document reviewers who have taken their time and efforts in reviewing the guidelines document and provided us with valuable comments and suggestions, which have improved the clarity and comprehensiveness of the document. Special thanks goes to Siri Jodha Khalsa, Erin Kenna, Stefan Schliebner, Alfred Stein, Peter Strobl, Tyler Christensen, Jasmine Muir, Jessie Oliver, Kenneth Casey, and Christin Henzen and her colleagues from the Geoinformatics/TU Dresden and the GeoKur project team.
Contents from the FAIR-DQI case statement (Peng et al. 2020a), the workshop summary report (Peng et al. 2020b), and the guidelines document (Peng et al. 2021b) are reused in this article.
The authors have no competing interests to declare.
GP is the main contributor to conceptualization, project planning, and writing of the original draft. CL contributed significantly to conceptualization, project planning, writing of the original draft, reviewing, and editing. RD contributed significantly to conceptualization, writing of the original draft, reviewing, and editing. AG contributed significantly to writing of the original draft, reviewing, and editing. HR and LW contributed to conceptualization, writing of the original draft, reviewing, and editing. II contributed to conceptualization, project planning, reviewing, and editing. DJ and LB contributed to conceptualization, writing, reviewing, and editing. CS contributed significantly to reviewing and editing. DM contributed to project planning, reviewing, and editing.
All authors have reviewed the manuscript and approved the submission.
Albani, M and Maggio, I. 2020. CEOS WGISS Data Management and Stewardship Maturity Matrix and Application at ESA. Pre-ESIP Workshop, 13 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12711896
Baker, KS, Duerr, RE and Parsons, MA. 2016. Scientific knowledge mobilization: Co-evolution of data products and designated communities. International Journal of Digital Curation, 10(2): 110–135. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2218/ijdc.v10i2.346
Bastin, L, Cornford, D, Jones, R, Heuvelink, GBM, Pebesma, E, Stasch, C, Nativi, S, Mazzetti, P, and Williams, M. 2013. Managing uncertainty in integrated environmental modelling: The UncertWeb framework. Environmental Modelling and Software, 39: 116–134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.02.008
Bugbee, K, le Roux, J, Sisco, A, Kaulfus, A, Staton, P, Woods, C, Dixon, V, Lynnes, C and Ramachandran, R. 2021. Improving discovery and use of NASA’s Earth observation data through metadata quality assessments. Data Science Journal, 20(1): 17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2021-017
Callahan, T, Barnard, J, Helmkamp, L, Maertens, J, and Kahn, M. 2017. Reporting data quality assessment results: Identifying individual and organizational barriers and solutions. eGEMs, 5(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/egems.214
Cordy, CE and Coryea, LR. 2006. Champion’s Practical Six Sigma Summary. Version: 27 January 2006. Xlibris Corporation. 65 pp. ISBN 978-1-4134-9681-9
CoreTrustSeal. 2019. Core Trustworthy Data Repository Requirements 2020–2022 – Extended Guidance. Version 2.0 November 2019. Zenodo. https://zenodo.org/record/3638211#.YCfqv89Ki7M.
Cosoli, S and Grcic, B. 2019. Quality control procedures for IMOS Ocean Radar Manual Version 2.1. Integrated Marine Observing System. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26198/5c89b59a931cb
Cowley, R. 2021. Report on the quality control of the IMOS East Australian Current (EAC) deep water moorings array. Deployed: April/May 2018 to September, 2019. Version 1.1. Hobart, Australia: CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, 56pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26198/5r16-xf23
Davies, C and Sommerville, E (eds) 2020. National Reference Stations Biogeochemical Operations Manual Version 3.3.1. Hobart, Australia. Integrated Marine Observing System, 66pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26198/5c4a56f2a8ae3
Digital Science, Fane, B, Ayris, P, Hahnel, M, Hrynaszkiewicz, I, Baynes, G and others. 2019. The State of Open Data Report 2019. Digital Science. Report. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9980783
Downs, R, Moroni, C, Peng, G, Ramapriyan, HK and Wei, Y. 2021. Documentation to Foster Sharing and Use of Open Earth Science Data: Quality Information. International Digital Curation Conference (IDCC), 19 April 2021. Virtual. Zenodo. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4701361
Downs, RR. 2020. GEOSS Data Management & Data Sharing Principles and TRUST – Implications for Information Quality. Pre-ESIP Workshop, 13 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12711989
Drévillon, M, García-Hermosa, I, Sotillo, MG, Régnier, C and the CMEMS Product Quality Working Group. 2020. Production of Quality Information at the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). ESIP Summer Meeting, 22 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12721592
Figgemeier, H, Henzen, C and Rümmler, A. 2021. A geo-dashboard concept for the interactively linked visualization of provenance and data quality for geospatial datasets. AGILE GIScience Ser., 2: 25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/agile-giss-2-25-2021
Goldberg, M and Zhou, L. 2020. JPSS & Product Algorithm Maturity Matrix and Application. Pre-ESIP Workshop, 13 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12711869
Henzen, C, Della Chiesa, S and Bernard, L. 2021. Recommendations for Future Data Management Plans in Earth System Sciences. AGILE GIScience Ser., 2: 31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/agile-giss-2-31-2021
Heydebreck, D, Ganske, A, Kraft, A, Kaiser, A, Thiemann, H, Habermann, T and Peng, G. 2020. Maturity Indicator – potential extension to the DataCite Metadata Schema. GitHub. Version 7.1. Available at: https://github.com/AtMoDat/maturity-indicator.
Höck, H, Toussaint, F and Thiemann, H. 2020. Fitness for use of data objects described with quality maturity matrix at different phases of data production. Data Science Journal, 19(1): 45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2020-045
Hou, Y. 2020. Interpreting and Applying the FAIR Principle Checks. ESIP Summer Meeting, 22 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12721628
ISO 19115-1. 2014. Geographic Information—Metadata – Part 1: Fundamentals. Version: 2014–04. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland. Available at: https://www.iso.org/standard/53798.html.
ISO 19157. 2013. Geographic information – Data quality, Geneva, Switzerland. Available at: https://www.iso.org/standard/32575.html.
Ivánová, I, Peng, G, Lacagnina, C and ODG Data Quality Domain Working Group. 2021. OGC quality makes data FAIR workshop. 15 June 2021. Virtual. Presentations are available from: https://www.ogc.org/projects/groups/dqdwg.
Lacagnina, C, Peng, G, Downs, RR, Ramapriyan, H, Ivánová, I and others. 2021a. Towards Developing Community Guidelines for Sharing and Reusing Quality Information of Earth Science Datasets. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, 19–30 April 2021. EGU21–23, 27 April 2021. Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-23
Lacagnina, C, Peng, G, Ivánová, I and others. 2021b. Global Community Effort on Sharing Dataset Quality Information. OGC “Quality makes data FAIR” Workshop, 15 June 2021. Virtual.
Lee, YW, Strong, DM, Khan, BK and Wang, RY. 2002. AIMQ: A methodology for information quality assessment. Information & Management, 40: 133–146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7206(02)00043-5
Lemieux, P, III, Peng, G and Scott, DJ. 2017. Data Stewardship Maturity Report for NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration, Version 2. Figshare. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5279932
Lief, C, Wright, W, Peng, G, Baddour, O, Siegmund, P, Berod, D, Dunn, R, Cazenave, A and Brunet, M. 2020. The High-Quality Global Data Management Framework for Climate – Improving the Quality of Climate Data Management for Better Climate Monitoring. Pre-ESIP Workshop, 13 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12712001
Lin, D, Crabtree, J, Dillo, I, Downs, RR, Edmunds, R, Giaretta, D, De Giusiti, M, L’Hours, H, Hugo, W, Jenkyns, R, Khodiyar, V, Martone, M, Mokrane, M, Navale, V, Petters, J, Sierman, B, Sokolova, DV, Stockhause, M and Westbrook, J. 2020. The TRUST principles for digital repositories. Scientific Data, 7: 144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0486-7
Matthews, JL, Mannshardt, E and Gremaud, P. 2013. Uncertainty quantification for climate observations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94: ES21–ES25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00042.1
Moroni, DF, Ramapriyan, HK, Peng, G, Hobbs, J, Goldstein, JC, Downs, RR, Wolfe, R, Shie, C-L, Merchant, CJ, Bourassa, M, Matthews, JL, Cornillon, P, Bastin, L, Kehoe, K, Smith, B, Privette, JL, Subramanian, AC, Brown, O and Ivánová, I. 2019. Understanding the Various Perspectives of Earth Science Observational Data Uncertainty. Figshare. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.10271450
Peng, G, Lacagnina, C, Downs, RR, Ivánová, I, Larnicol, G, Moroni, DF, Ramapriyan, H and Wei, Y. 2020a. Case Statement for Community Guidelines for FAIR Dataset Quality Information. Figshare. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12605438
Peng, G, Lacagnina, C, Downs, RR, Ivánová, I, Moroni, DF, Ramapriyan, H, Wei, Y and Larnicol, G. 2020b. Laying the Groundwork for Developing International Community Guidelines to Effectively Share and Reuse Digital Data Quality Information – Case Statement, Workshop Summary Report, and Path Forward. Open Science Framework. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/75b92
Peng, G, Lacagnina, C, Downs, RR, Ramapriyan, Ivánová, I and others. 2020c. Towards Developing Community Guidelines for Sharing and Reuse of Digital Data Quality Information. IN012-04. AGU Fall Meeting 2020. Talk. Dec 8, 2020. Virtual.
Peng, G, Downs, RR, Lacagnina, C, Ramapriyan, H, Ivánová, I and others. 2021a. Call to action for global access to and harmonization of quality information of individual Earth science datasets. Data Science Journal, 20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2021-019
Peng, G, Lacagnina, C, Ivánová, I, Downs, RR, Ramapriyan, H, Ganske, A and others. 2021b. International Community Guidelines for Sharing and Reusing Quality Information of Individual Earth Science Datasets. Open Science Framework. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/xsu4p
Peng, G and the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working Group. 2021c. Developing Community Guidelines for FAIR Dataset Quality Information. OGC Data Quality Domain Working Group Meeting, March 22, 2021. Virtual.
Peng, G, Downs, R, Ramapriyan, HK, Moroni, D and Wei, Y. 2021d. Introducing Community Guidelines for FAIR Dataset Quality Information. AU/NZ Data Quality Interest Group-ESIP IQC Meeting, March 31, 2021. Virtual.
Peng, G, Lacagnina, C, Ivánová, I and others. 2021e. Global Community Effort on Sharing Dataset Quality Information. Barcelona Supercomputing Center Evaluation and Quality Control Workshop. June 6, 2021. Virtual.
Peng, G and the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working Group. 2021f. FAIR Dataset Quality Information. October 19, 2021. SciDataCon 2021, Virtual.
Peng, G and the International FAIR-DQI Community Guidelines Working Group. 2021g. Developing Community Guidelines to Promote Global Access to and Harmonization of Quality Information of Individual Earth Science Datasets. October 21, 2021. CEOS WGISS #52 Meeting, Virtual.
Peng, G, Wyborn, L, Downs, RR, Ramapriyan, HK, Ivánová, I, Lacagnina, C and Wu, M. 2021h. Representing and Communicating Data Quality Information. Session. November 3, 3021. RDA 18th Plenary. Virtual. https://www.rd-alliance.org/representing-and-communicating-data-quality-information.
Peng, G, Lacagnina, C, Ivánová, I, Downs, RR, Ramapriyan, HK, Wyborn, L, Wu, M and others. 2021i. Making Dataset Quality Information FAIR – Guidelines for Sharing and Reusing Quality Information of Individual Earth Science Datasets. Nov 3, 2021. RDA 18th Plenary, Virtual.
Peng, G, Milan, A, Ritchey, N, Partee II, RP, Zinn, S, McQuinn, Lemieux, PE, III, Ionin, R, Collins, D, Jones, P, Jakositz, A, and Casey, KS. 2019a. Practical application of a stewardship maturity matrix for the NOAA OneStop Program. Data Science Journal, 18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2019-041
Peng, G, Privette, JL, Kearns, EJ, Ritchey, NA and Ansari, S. 2015. A unified framework for measuring stewardship practices applied to digital environmental datasets. Data Science Journal, 13: 231–253. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2481/dsj.14-049
Peng, G, Wright, W, Baddour, O, Lief, C and the SMM-CD Work Group. 2019b. The Guidance Booklet on the WMO-Wide Stewardship Maturity Matrix for Climate Data. Figshare. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7002482
Popp, T, Hegglin, MI, Hollmann, R, Ardhuin, F, Bartsch, A and others. 2020. Consistency of satellite climate data records for Earth system monitoring. BAMS. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0127.1
RDA FAIR Data Maturity Model Working Group. 2020. FAIR Data Maturity Model: specification and guidelines. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15497/rda00050
Ramapriyan, H, Downs, R, Peng, G and Wei, Y. 2021. The State of Documenting and Reporting Data and Information Quality for Supporting Open Science, Session 285. SciDataCon 2021, https://www.scidatacon.org/virtual-2021/sessions/285/.
Ramapriyan, H, Peng, G, Moroni, D and Shie, C-L. 2017. Ensuring and improving information quality for Earth science data and products. D-Lib Magazine, 23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1045/july2017-ramapriyan
Redman, CT. 1996. Data quality of the information age. Artech House, Boston. 303 pp.
Ritchey, N. 2020. NOAA/NCEI Data Stewardship Maturity Assessment. Pre-ESIP Workshop, 13 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12711929
Schulz, J. 2020. System Maturity and Application Performance for Climate Data Record. Pre-ESIP Workshop, 13 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12711875
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). 2020. Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT), Version 2. Available at: https://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat-2/#Class:Dataset.
Wagner, M, Henzen, C, and Müller-Pfefferkorn, R. 2021. A research data infrastructure component for the automated metadata and data quality extraction to foster the provision of FAIR data in Earth system sciences. AGILE GIScience Ser., 2: 41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/agile-giss-2-41-2021
Wang, RY and Strong, DM. 1996. Beyond accuracy: What data quality means to consumers. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(4): 5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.1996.11518099
Wei, Y, Moroni, D, Ramapriyan, H, Downs, RR, Liu, Z, Scott, D and NASA ESDSWG. 2020. NASA ESDSWG Data Quality Working Group. Pre-ESIP Workshop, 13 July 2020, Virtual. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12711962
Wenger-Trayner, E and Wenger-Trayner, B. 2015. Introduction to communities of practice. Available at: https://wenger-trayner.com/introduction-to-communities-of-practice.
Wilkinson, MD, Dumontier, M, Aalbersberg, IJ, Appleton, G, Axton, M, Baak, A and others. 2016. The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship. Scientific Data, 3: 160018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.18
Woo, LM and Gourcuff, C. 2021. Delayed Mode QA/QC Best Practice Manual Version 3.0. Integrated Marine Observing System. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26198/5c997b5fdc9bd
Wu, F, Cornillon, P, Boussidi, B and Guan, L. 2017. Determining the pixel-to-pixel uncertainty in satellite-derived SST fields. Journal of Remote Sensing, 9(9). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9090877
Wyborn, L, Wu, M, Ivánová, I, Bastrakova, I, Peng, G, Wei, Y, Moroni, D and Downs, RR. 2021. International Efforts to Develop Community Guidelines for FAIR Quality Information of Earth Science Datasets. 2021 Australia Collaborative Conference on Computational & Data Intensive Science (C3DIS). 5–9 July 2021. Virtual.
Zhou, L, Divakarla, M and Liu, X. 2016. An overview of the joint polar satellite system (JPSS) science data product calibration and validation. Remote Sensing, 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020139