Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Dataset after Seven Years Simulating Hybrid Energy Systems with Homer Legacy

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Data Articles

Dataset after Seven Years Simulating Hybrid Energy Systems with Homer Legacy

Authors:

Alexandre Beluco ,

Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas (IPH) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), BR
X close

Frederico A. During F°,

Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas (IPH) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), BR
X close

Lúcia M. R. Silva,

Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas (IPH) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), BR
X close

Jones S. Silva,

Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas (IPH) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), BR
X close

Lúis E. Teixeira,

Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas (IPH) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), BR
X close

Gabriel Vasco,

Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas (IPH) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), BR
X close

Fausto A. Canales,

Department of Civil and Environmental, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla, Atlantico, CO
X close

Elton G. Rossini,

Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), Porto Alegre, RS, BR
X close

José de Souza,

Fundação Liberato Salzano Vieira da Cunha, Novo Hamburgo, RS, BR
X close

Giuliano C. Daronco,

Companhia Riograndense de Saneamento (CORSAN), Santa Rosa, RS, BR
X close

Alfonso Risso

Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas (IPH) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), BR
X close

Abstract

Homer Legacy software is a well-known software for simulation of small hybrid systems that can be used for both design and research. This dataset is a set of files generated by Homer Legacy bringing the simulation results of hybrid energy systems over the last seven years, as a consequence of the research work led by Dr. Alexandre Beluco, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. The data correspond to twelve papers published in the last seven years. Two of them describe hydro PV hybrid systems with photovoltaic panels operating on the water surface of reservoirs. One of these twelve papers suggests the modeling of hydropower plants with reservoirs and the other the modeling of pumped hydro storage, and a third still uses these models in a place that could receive both the two types of hydroelectric power plant. The other simulated hybrid systems include wind turbines, diesel generators, batteries, among other components. This data article describes the files that integrate this dataset and the papers that have been published presenting the hybrid systems under study and discussing the results. The files that make up this dataset are available on Mendeley Data repository at https://doi.org/10.17632/ybxsttf2by.2.

How to Cite: Beluco, A., During F°, F.A., Silva, L.M.R., Silva, J.S., Teixeira, L.E., Vasco, G., Canales, F.A., Rossini, E.G., de Souza, J., Daronco, G.C. and Risso, A., 2020. Dataset after Seven Years Simulating Hybrid Energy Systems with Homer Legacy. Data Science Journal, 19(1), p.14. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2020-014
119
Views
25
Downloads
2
Twitter
  Published on 23 Mar 2020
 Accepted on 13 Feb 2020            Submitted on 13 Jun 2019

Introduction

Hybrid energy systems can take on very complex behavior, considering the characteristics presented by the energy availability of renewable resources, by the energy demand profiles of the consumers, by the energy storage devices and by the possible combinations between exploited renewable energy resources and between devices for energy storage.

The simulation of different hybrid systems with different components, operating in different locations and conditions, complemented by the observations (whenever possible) of the receptivity of these systems by their users, contributes to a better understanding of their characteristics and to better conceptions of the systems to be designed in the future.

In this context, Homer Legacy (HomerEnergy, 2007) is a well-known software (Connolly et al., 2010; Sinha & Chandel, 2014) and is a powerful tool for simulating hybrid energy systems. Homer Legacy (Lambert, Gilman & Lilienthal, 2005; Lilienthal, Lambert & Gilman, 2004) simulates all combinations of optimization variables to identify which combination leads to the lowest total net present cost over the period considered for project analysis, usually 20–25 years, and repeats these simulations for all sensitivity variables to perform a sensitivity analysis. Systems based on run-of-the-river hydropower, PV solar energy and wind power, battery storage, AC and DC bus, supported by diesel and other fuel systems, among other alternatives, supplying various consumer loads, can be simulated with Homer.

Homer software was developed in the early years of this century by members of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), until version 2.68. The team directly responsible for Homer then formed HomerEnergy to better support users and to develop new versions of the software, meeting a growing demand for services beyond what could be handled by a government lab. The latest version even distributed by NREL has become the Legacy version, still distributed free for educational and academic purposes.

This paper presents files obtained with the Homer Legacy software for nine different case studies and for three methods for simulation of specific hybrid systems. One such method (Canales & Beluco, 2014) describes how to simulate hydro power plants with reservoir and the other (Canales, Beluco & Mendes, 2017) describes how to simulate pumped storage plants, since Homer simulates only run-of-the-river hydropower.

The third (Silva & Beluco, 2018) of these methods for the use of Homer Legacy presents a viability space for new technologies for generating energy from renewable resources. This viability space, as a ‘viability window’, is a target to be pursued in order to make technical and economically viable new technologies. This paper shows the application to the ocean wave energy case on the southern coast of Brazil.

The two methods described above were applied in a location where it would be possible to build both a conventional hydroelectric power plant with water reservation and a pumped storage hydropower plant. The comparison (Canales, Beluco & Mendes, 2015) indicated, for similar capacities and performances, lower environmental impacts associated with the reversible hydropower plant.

Among the other case studies, the first three of them (Silva, Cardoso & Beluco, 2012; Beluco & Ponticelli, 2014; Beluco et al., 2013) deal with the insertion of PV modules and-or other components or new fuels into previously existing diesel hybrid systems and the fourth (Benevit et al., 2016) of them studies the subtle influence of different wind energy availability profiles on the performance of a wind diesel hybrid system.

The article by During Fo et al. (2018) study the influence of temporal complementarity in time [according to the concept of energetic complementarity introduced by Beluco et al. (2008) and discussed by Jurasz et al. (2019)] on the energy storage in batteries in PV hydro hybrid systems, applying a specific method (proposed by Beluco, Souza & Krenzinger, 2012 and revised by During Fo & Beluco, 2019) appropriate for the analysis of hybrid systems based on complementary energy resources.

The paper by Teixeira et al. (2015) evaluates the feasibility of a PV hydro hybrid system operating in a dam for water supply in southern Brazil. The hydropower plant is feasible only with the use of pumps as turbines and the PV modules must be installed on floating structures on the surface of the reservoir. This feasibility evaluation is similar to the one that was undertaken for the pumped storage plant proposed by Risso et al. (2017) in their study.

Finally, two papers consider an alternative to a hydropower plant whose construction was started in the 1970s and then interrupted after the completion of the dam. The first (Vasco et al. 2019a) proposes an engine room at the base of the dam, unlike the original proposal, with PV modules on floating structures on the surface of the reservoir. The other paper (Vasco et al., 2019b) evaluates the use of the reservoir’s small power storage capacity to obtain a hybrid system with better performance.

This article consists of four sections. This introduction briefly presents the topics covered in the papers that were published from the Homer files composing this dataset. The next section describes the thirty Homer files contained in this dataset. The subsequent section briefly presents the method used to build the Homer files composing this data set and the fourth and final section outlines some basic information on how to get the Homer software, Legacy version, and how to use it and how to access the files in this dataset.

Data description

The files composing this dataset are available online in the Mendeley Data repository under a specific DOI (Beluco et al., 2019), with each file also identified with a specific DOI. Table 1, below, presents some specifications of this dataset, and subsequently each of the files is briefly described. The next section describes how the data in these files was obtained.

Table 1

Specifications of the dataset.

Feature Description

Subject Engineering
Specific subject area Renewable Energy
Type of data Results of simulations performed by the software Homer Legacy, in the format of hmr files (compatible with this specific software)
Description of data set 30 hmr files corresponding to 12 publications, including proposed methods and case studies
Data format Raw data, automatically analyzed by Homer Legacy when opened
Input data Energy availability data of the resources used in each case, consumer demand profiles, technical specifications of the components of the hybrid systems
Output data One-year operation simulations of hybrid systems for all combinations of optimization and sensitivity variables, and accounting for all costs for the period of analysis
Data source location Simulation data were obtained for operational or design hybrid energy systems at some locations along the territory of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost State of Brazil.
Data accessibility Data available in Mendeley Data repository: 10.17632/ybxsttf2by.2.
Related research article Silva et al. 2012. Int J Photoenergy, v.2012, #384153.
Beluco et al. 2013. Comp W Energy Envrn Eng, v.2, n.2, p.43–53.
Canales and Beluco. 2014. J Ren Sust Energy, v.6, #043131
Beluco and Ponticelli. 2014. Int J Ren En Tech, v.5, n.3, p.229–250.
Canales et al. 2015. J En Stor, v.4, p.96–105.
Teixeira et al. 2015. J Pow En Eng, v.3, n.9, p.70–83.
Benevit et al. 2016. J Pow En Eng, v.4, n.8, p.38–48.
Canales et al. 2017. Int J Sust En, v.36, n.7, p.654–667.
Silva and Beluco. 2018. Curr Alt En, v.2, n.2, p.112–122.
During Fo et al. 2018. Comp W En Envrn Eng, v.7, n.3, p.142–159.
Vasco et al. 2019a. Comp W En Envrn Eng, v.8, n.2, p.41–56.
Vasco et al. 2019b. Sm Grid Ren En, v.10, n.4, p.83–97.

Table 2 describes the thirty hmr files that make up this dataset, corresponding to twelve articles, arranged in chronological order. In this table, the first column names the file and the second column indicates the associated article. Some articles were based on results from just one simulation file, while others required more than one file.

Table 2

Specifications of the hmr files composing the dataset.

hmr file Associated publication Short description Optimization values Sensitivity variables Results in associated publication *

#01-silva-et-al-2012 Silva, Cardoso & Beluco (2012) a PV wind diesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries and water and environment heating 288 5880 Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9
#02-beluco-et-al-2013-A Beluco et al. (2013) a PV hydro diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with an existing hydro power plant 48 1536 Figs. 7, 8 and 11
#02-beluco-et-al-2013-B a PV hydro diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with a hydropower plant to be implemented 48 1536 Figs. 9 and 10
#03-canales-beluco-2014-1 Canales & Beluco (2014) a wind hydro diesel hybrid system with pumped storage capacity 15 3 Fig. 7
#03-canales-beluco-2014-2 a wind hydro diesel hybrid system with pumped storage capacity 24 3 Fig. 9
#04-beluco-ponticelli-2014-fig1 Beluco & Ponticelli (2014) a wind diesel hybrid system already in operation and whose improvement was analyzed 15 1872 Figs. 7, 10 and 11
#04-beluco-ponticelli-2014-fig6a-b100 a PV wind biodiesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries 1750 1000 Figs. 9, 10, 11, 20, 21, 22 and 23
#04-beluco-ponticelli-2014-fig6a-dsl a PV wind diesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries 1750 1000 Figs. 8, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18 and 19
#04-beluco-ponticelli-2014-fig6b a PV wind diesel biodiesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries 3500 50 Figs. 12, 13, 14 and 15
#05-canales-et-al-2015-Sys3PH Canales, Beluco & Mendes (2015) a wind hydro hybrid system with pumped storage capacity 12474 96 Figs. 5, 7 and Table I
#05-canales-et-al-2015-Sys3Res a wind hydro hybrid system with energy storage capacity in a water reservoir 1496 48 Fig. 7
#06-teixeira-et-al-2015–2000 Teixeira et al. (2015) a PV hydro hybrid system designed for operation at a dam for water supply, with the capital cost of the PV modules at US$ 2000 per kW 300 1440 Figs. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15
#06-teixeira-et-al-2015–2500 a PV hydro hybrid system designed for operation at a dam for water supply, with the capital cost of the PV modules at US$ 2500 per kW 300 1440 Figs. 9, 14 and 15
#06-teixeira-et-al-2015–2000 a PV hydro hybrid system designed for operation at a dam for water supply, with the capital cost of the PV modules at US$ 3000 per kW 300 1440 Figs. 14 and 15
#06-teixeira-et-al-2015-3500 a PV hydro hybrid system designed for operation at a dam for water supply, with the capital cost of the PV modules at US$ 3500 per kW 300 1440 Figs. 14 and 15
#06-teixeira-et-al-2015-4000 a PV hydro hybrid system designed for operation at a dam for water supply, with the capital cost of the PV modules at US$ 4000 per kW 300 1440 Figs. 14 and 15
#07-benevit-et-al-2016-180 Benevit et al. (2016) a wind diesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries, simulated with Weibull shape parameter equal to 1.80 360 108 Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7
#07-benevit-et-al-2016-210 a wind diesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries, simulated with Weibull shape parameter equal to 2.10 360 108
#07-benevit-et-al-2016-240 a wind diesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries, simulated with Weibull shape parameter equal to 2.40 360 108
#07-benevit-et-al-2016-270 a wind diesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries, simulated with Weibull shape parameter equal to 2.70 360 108
#07-benevit-et-al-2016-300 a wind diesel hybrid system with energy storage in batteries, simulated with Weibull shape parameter equal to 3.00 360 108
#08-canales-et-al-2017 Canales, Beluco & Mendes (2017) a wind hydro hybrid system with energy storage in the reservoir of the hydropower plant 224 72 Figs. 7, 8, 9 and Table 2
#09-silva-beluco-2018 Silva & Beluco (2018) a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, including an ocean wave power plant 512 450 Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11 and Table 1
#10-during-et-al-2018-d000 During Fo et al. (2018) a PV hydro hybrid system with energy storage capacity in batteries, with time-complementarity index equal to 0.00 1476 87 Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
#10-during-et-al-2018-d090 a PV hydro hybrid system with energy storage capacity in batteries, with time-complementarity index equal to 0.50 1476 87 Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
#10-during-et-al-2018-d120 a PV hydro hybrid system with energy storage capacity in batteries, with time-complementarity index equal to 0.67 1476 87 Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
#10-during-et-al-2018-d150 a PV hydro hybrid system with energy storage capacity in batteries, with time-complementarity index equal to 0.83 1476 87 Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
#10-during-et-al-2018-d180 a PV hydro hybrid system with energy storage capacity in batteries, with time-complementarity index equal to 1.00 1476 87 Figs. 3, 4, 7, 8 and 11
#11-vasco-et-al-2019 Vasco et al. (2019a) a PV hydro hybrid system connected to the grid, designed for an unfinished hydro power plant 486 567 Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
#12-vasco-et-al-2019 Vasco et al. (2019b) a PV hydro hybrid system connected to the grid, with energy storage in the water reservoir 18 72 Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11

* Figures and tables constructed from manipulation of Homer Legacy simulation results appear in bold.

In Table 2, the third column describes the data of the file and the next two columns indicate the number of values of the optimization and sensitivity variables considered in the simulations. Eventually, these numbers do not exactly match all the variables presented in the associated articles, because some variables did not result in meaningful results and were not considered here so that the files could be reasonably sized.

In Table 2, also, the last column indicates the figures and tables in the associated publications bringing results of simulations with Homer Legacy. Some of these results correspond to direct results provided by Homer Legacy, while others were obtained from the manipulation of results provided by the simulations and the resulting construction of new graphs or tables. Figures and tables obtained from results provided by Homer Legacy appear in bold.

Methods

The Homer Legacy was used to generate the data available in this dataset and this software is available for free at the link provided by HomerEnergy (2007), as described in the next section. For each of the hybrid energy systems that were simulated and whose results appear in the files described above, the software received energy availability data for each of the energy resources employed, the software also received the demand profile of the consumer loads and also received technical information on each of the components of the hybrid systems that were simulated. The Homer software then performs simulations of these hybrid systems for all values of the optimization variables and the sensitivity variables, as explained by Lambert, Gilman & Lilienthal (2005) and Lilienthal, Lambert & Gilman (2004). The files indicated above then present the results of all these simulations.

Software Homer, version Legacy – how to get it and how to use it

Homer allows the selection of components that form the hybrid energy system to be studied, simulates this hybrid system for a full year, at 8760 hours of a year, simulates this system for all combinations of optimization variables choosing as optimal solution that solution presenting the lowest total net present cost, and repeats these simulations for all combinations of sensitivity variables, leading to an optimization space. The simulations are carried out for one year, but the economic feasibility takes into account the time established for the evaluation, usually 20–25 years. Homer can be well understood by consulting Lambert, Gilman & Lilienthal (2005) and Lilienthal, Lambert & Gilman (2004).

The version Legacy of software Homer corresponds to the latest version provided by NREL [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy, 2019)]. The team responsible for Homer’s development formed HomerEnergy and went on to develop more advanced versions in a commercial scheme. Legacy version is still available free for educational and academic activities after registration on the HomerEnergy website (HomerEnergy, 2019) and the completion of a specific form. Homer was part of the software package made available by NREL until 2007 and later distributed by HomerEnergy (still free of charge).

The files in this data set can be accessed directly with Homer and the results can be explored by searching for details that are not discussed in the papers cited above. The Getting Started Guide (Lilienthal, Lambert & Gilman, 2011) provides complete instructions for general operation of Homer and for detailed exploration of results, including fine-tuning a project. As commented in the text of the first section of the Getting Started Guide, “it should take about an hour to complete this exercise”. The Getting Started Guide can also be accessed in the third line of the Help item in the main menu of the Homer software.

Acknowledgements

This work was developed as a part of the activities of the Research Group on Renewable Energy and Sustainability of the Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil.

Funding Information

The research work of the first author is supported by CNPq (proc. n. 312941/2017-0).

Competing Interests

The authors have no competing interests to declare.

References

  1. Beluco, A, Colvara, CP, Teixeira, LE and Beluco, A. 2013. Feasibility study for power generation during peak hours with a hybrid system in a recycled paper mill. Computational Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering, 2(2): 43–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2013.22005 

  2. Beluco, A and Ponticelli, FA. 2014. Inclusion of biodiesel and PV modules in a wind diesel hybrid system supplying electrical loads on a small farms. International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology, 5(3): 229–250. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJRET.2014.063010 

  3. Beluco, A, During Fo, FA, Silva, LMR, Silva, JS, Teixeira, LE, Vasco, G, Canales, FA, Rossini, EG, Souza, J, Daronco, GC and Risso, A. 2019. Seven years simulating hybrid energy systems with Homer Legacy. Mendeley Data, v2. During submission: ybxsttf2by/draft?a…ff71fa. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17632/ybxsttf2by.2 

  4. Beluco, A, Souza, PK and Krenzinger, A. 2008. A dimensionless index evaluating the time complementarity between solar and hydraulic energies. Renewable Energy, 33(10): 2157–2165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.01.019 

  5. Beluco, A, Souza, PK and Krenzinger, A. 2012. A method to evaluate the effect of complementarity in time between hydro and solar energy on the performance of hybrid hydro PV generating plants. Renewable Energy, 45: 24–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJRET.2014.063010 

  6. Benevit, MG, Silva, JS, Gewehr, AG and Beluco, A. 2016. Subtle influence of the Weibull shape parameter on Homer optimization space of a wind diesel hybrid system for use in southern Brazil. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 4(8): 38–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2013.22005 

  7. Canales, FA and Beluco, A. 2014. Modeling pumped hydro storage with the micropower optimization model (Homer). Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 6: #043131, 12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4893077 

  8. Canales, FA, Beluco, A and Mendes, CAB. 2015. A comparative study of a wind hydro hybrid system with water storage capacity: conventional reservoir or pumped storage plant. Journal of Energy Storage, 4: 96–105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2015.09.007 

  9. Canales, FA, Beluco, A and Mendes, CAB. 2017. Modelling a hydropower plant with reservoir with the micro power optimization model (Homer). International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 36(7): 654–667. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786451.2015.1080706 

  10. Connolly, D, Lund, H, Mathiesen, BV and Leahy, M. 2010. A review of computer tools for analyzing the integration of renewable energy into various energy systems. Applied Energy, 87: 1059–1082. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.09.026 

  11. During Fo, FA and Beluco, A. 2019. Simulating hybrid energy systems based on complementary energy resources. MethodsX, 6: 2492–2498. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.10.017 

  12. During Fo, FA, Beluco, A, Rossini, EG and Souza, J. 2018. Influence of time complementarity on energy storage through batteries in the performance of hydro PV hybrid systems. Computational Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering, 7(3): 142–159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2018.73010 

  13. HomerEnergy. 2007. Software Homer Legacy (software Homer, version 2.68 beta). Available at www.homerenergy.com. 

  14. HomerEnergy. 2019. www.homerenergy.com. [Last accessed on June 29, 2019]. 

  15. Jurasz, J, Canales, FA, Kies, A, Guezgouz, M and Beluco, A. 2019. A review on the complementarity of renewable energy sources: concept, metrics, application and future research directions. Solar Energy, 195: 703–724. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2019.11.087 

  16. Lambert, TW, Gilman, P and Lilienthal, PD. 2005. Micropower system modeling with Homer. In: Farret, FA and Simões, MG (eds.), Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy, 379–418. Hoboken (NJ), USA: John Wiley & Sons. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/0471755621.ch15 

  17. Lilienthal, PD, Lambert, TW and Gilman, P. 2004. Computer modeling of renewable power systems. In: Cleveland, CJ (ed.), Encyclopedia of Energy, 1, 633–647. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-176480-X/00522-2 

  18. Lilienthal, PD, Lambert, TW and Gilman, P. 2011. Getting Started Guide for Homer Legacy (Version 2.68). Available online at http://www.science.smith.edu/~jcardell/Courses/EGR325/Readings/HOMERGettingStartedGuide.pdf. [Last accessed June 29, 2019]. 

  19. Risso, A, Canales, FA, Beluco, A and Rossini, EG. 2017. A PV wind hydro hybrid system with pumped storage capacity installed in Linha Sete, Aparados da Serra, southern Brazil. In: Kishor, N and Fraile-Ardanuy, J (eds.), Modeling and Dynamic Behaviour of Hydropower Plants, 205–222. London, England: The Institution of Engineering and Technology. 

  20. Silva, JS and Beluco, A. 2018. Characterization of a feasibility space for a new technology – case study of wave energy in southern Brazil. Current Alternative Energy, 2(2): 112–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1570178615666180830102336 

  21. Silva, JS, Cardoso, AR and Beluco, A. 2012. Consequences of reducing the costs of PV modules on a PV wind diesel hybrid system with limited sizing components. International Journal of Photoenergy, 2012: #384153, 7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/384153 

  22. Sinha, S and Chandel, SS. 2014. Review of software tools for hybrid renewable energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32: 192–205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.035 

  23. Teixeira, LE, Caux, J, Beluco, A, Bertoldo, I, Louzada, JAS and Eifler, RC. 2015. Feasibility study of a hydro PV hybrid system operating at a dam for water supply in southern Brazil. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 3(9): 70–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/jpee.2015.39006 

  24. U.S. Department of Energy. 2019. NREL, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Available at https://www.nrel.gov. [Last accessed June 29, 2019]. 

  25. Vasco, G, Silva, JS, Beluco, A, Rossini, EG and Souza, J. 2019a. A hydro PV hybrid system as a new concept for an abandoned dam in southern Brazil. Computational Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering, 8(2): 41–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2019.82003 

  26. Vasco, G, Silva, JS, Canales, FA, Beluco, A, Rossini, EG and Souza, J. 2019b. A hydro PV hybrid system for the Laranjeiras Dam (in southern Brazil) operating with storage capacity in the water reservoir. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 10(4): 83–97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/sgre.2019.104006 

comments powered by Disqus